A Policy on Design StandardsInterstate System, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C., July 1991).
Wikipedia Article: 7/9/13
Standards for Interstate Highways in the United States are defined by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in the publication A Policy on Design Standards - Interstate System. For a certain highway to be considered an Interstate, it must meet these construction requirements or obtain a waiver from the Federal Highway Administration.
These guidelines do not establish ramp and interchange spacing standards. Rather they provide a process and criteria for assessing spacing in a given context to assist planners and designers in considering the feasibility of new or rebuilt interchanges and ramps. Interchange spacing is defined as the distance between the centerlines of successive crossroads with interchanges on a freeway.
Rakha, H., A. Flintsch, M. Arafeh, G. Abdel-Salam, D. Dua and M. Abbas, Access Control Design on Highway Interchanges, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia Department of Transportation, Virginia Transportation Research Council (2008)
This project applied analytical tools (regional economic forecasting models, GIS, transportation planning software, and traffic simulation software) to inform the planning and development process along an emerging interstate highway corridor. It illustrated the benefits of advanced planning and access management intended to preserve the functional integrity of the corridor and its interchanges and crossroads.
Butorac, M., and J. Wen, NCHRP Synthesis 332: Access Management on Crossroads in the Vicinity of Interchanges, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. (2004)
This study documented practices and standards relative to access location and design on the crossroads in the vicinity of interchanges, both for new interchanges and retrofit of existing interchanges. It provides guidance relative to factors that may be considered when assessing crossroad and mainline spacing near interchanges.
Anderson, M., L. Severin, S. Jones Jr., S. Ostaseski and M. Lewandowski, GIS Forecast of Potential Interchange Land Use Patterns to Support Access Management, Transportation Research Board 86th Annual Meeting (2007)
Stewart, J., US-280 Access Management - Managing Small Town Economics, 10th National Conference on Transportation Planning for Small and Medium-Sized Communities (2006)
Vu, P., V. Shankar, G. Ulfarsson, Is Access Management Good for Business? Business Perceptions of the Effects of Traffic Access Management on Accessibility and Patronage, Transportation Planning and Technology, Vol. 29, Issue 4 (2006)
Plazak, D. and H. Preston, Long-Term Business and Land Development Impacts of Access Management: Minnesota Interstate 394 Case Study, Paper 06-0040, 85th Annual Transportation Research Board Meeting, Washington, D.C. (2006)
Ismart, D., W. Frawley, D. Plazak, K. Williams, D. Matherly, M. Fendrick, N. Spiller. Safe Access is Good for Business, FHWA-HOP-06-107, (2006) This primer summarizes research on economic impacts of access management. It is designed to address questions the business owners may have about access management and its effect on business activity and the local economy.
Cunningham, C., M. Miller, S. Smith, D. Findley, D. Carter, B. Schroeder, D. Katz and R. Foyle, Economic Effects of Access Management Techniques in North Carolina, prepared for North Carolina Department of Transportation, North Carolina State University (2010) [Cunningham, C., M. Miller, S. Smith, D. Findley, D. Carter, B. Schroeder, D. Katz and R. Foyle, Economic Effects of Access Management Techniques in North Carolina, 90th Annual Transportation Research Board Meeting, Washington, D.C. (2011)]
This document became the first national guide focused specifically on driveway design since the publication of AASHTOs An Informational Guide for Preparing Private Driveway Regulations for Major Highways in 1959. Since 1959, the transportation system and its needs have changed drastically, and this report addresses the need for a comprehensive driveway design guide that accounts for vehicles, pedestrians, and bicyclists. The report identifies more than 90 design elements that directly or indirectly affect the geometric design of a driveway or access point.
S. Smith. NCHRP Report 435: Guidebook for Transportation Corridor Studies: A Process for Effective Decision-Making, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. (1999)
Williams, K., NCHRP Synthesis 337: Cooperative Agreements for Corridor Management, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. (2004)
This report reviews the state of the practice in developing and implementing cooperative agreements for corridor management, elements of such agreements, and best practices or lessons learned. It includes several case examples of cooperative agreements. Below are a few excerpts from the report relative to effective agreements.
Williams, K. and C. Hopes. Guide for Analysis of Corridor Management Policies and Practices, prepared for the Florida Department of Transportation, (2007)
The guide provides detailed guidance for conducting a corridor management policy analysis including:
steps in evaluating local government policies and practices,
methods for identifying implementation needs, and
a framework for recommending policy changes, including examples and resources for further information.
Vermont Agency of Transportation, Vermont Corridor Management Handbook, prepared by Cambridge Systematics, Inc. (2005) [online] http://www.aot.state.vt.us/planning/vtcorridor.htm
Seggerman, K. and K. Williams. Effective Strategies for Comprehensive Corridor Management, prepared for the Florida Department of Transportation, Center for Urban Transportation Research, Tampa, FL, 2004.
This study includes numerous case studies of effective corridor management plans, processes and policies.
City of Houston, Urban Corridor Planning: Houston, (2009) Available online at http://www.houstontx.gov/planning/_urban/urban_cor.html
NY Route 5 Access Management Plan, prepared by Creighton Manning Engineering for the Capital District Transportation Authority and the Capital District Transportation Committee, (2009). Available online at http://www.cdtcmpo.org/accman/plan.htm
Androscoggin Valley Council of Governments, Maines Best Practices for Development of Multi-Modal Corridor Management Plans, (2007)
This report offers a step by step approach to development of a regional corridor management plan. For example, it includes an effective summary of the appropriate roles of the DOT and Regional Councils in the planning process, Advisory Committee Procedures and Goals, and examples of data needs.
US Access Board, Draft Guidelines for public Rights-of-way, Section R305.4, U.S. Access Board, Washington, D.C., 2005.
King, M. Pedestrian Safety through a Raised Median and Redesigned Intersections, TRR 1445, TRB, Washington, DC, 2004.
The analysis of this road reconstruction project sought to do two things: to demonstrate innovative qualitative techniques in analyzing traffic calming and pedestrian safety projects, and to quantitatively evaluate the effect of the project on traffic calming and pedestrian safety.
Lindley, J., Guidance Memorandum on Consideration and Implementation of Proven Safety Countermeasures, FHWA, Washington DC, July 2008.
NHTSA, Traffic Safety Facts 2008 Pedestrians, NHTSA, Washington, DC, 2009.
Wilson, Petritsch, Quantifying Countermeasure Effectiveness, Orlando, FL, PBIC, November 2008.
Pedestrian and bicycle professionals sometimes encounter resistance when proposing crash countermeasures, due either to competing interests along a corridor or the desire to cut costs. Quantifying the effectiveness of corridor-length countermeasures such as medians, lighting and bicycle lanes will help proponents make a better case for these elements.
Williams, K. and K. Seggerman, Model Regulations and Plan Amendments for Multimodal Transportation Districts, National Center for Transit Research, Center for Urban Transportation Research, Tampa, FL, (2004)
This report includes suggested comprehensive plan amendment language and land development regulations that relate to access management in a multimodal environment.
Kikuchi, S. and N. Kronprasert, Determining the Length of the Right-turn Lane at a Signalized Intersection, Transportation Research Record 2060, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. (2008) pp. 19-28.
Boonsiripant, S., M. Hunter, K. Dixon and M.O. Rogers, Measurement and Comparison of Acceleration and Deceleration Zones at Traffic Control Intersections, Proceedings of the 89th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, ( 2010)
Birk, M. and R. Geller, Bridging the Gaps: How Quality and Quantity of a Connected Bikeway Network Correlates with Increasing Bicycle Use, Presented at the Transportation Research Board 85th Annual Meeting (2006)
Van Schalkwyk, I. and V.G. Stover. Revisiting Existing Warrants for Left-turn Lanes at Unsignalized Intersections on Two-Way Roadways, Paper 07-0784, Presented at the 86th Annual Transportation Research Board meeting, Washington, D.C. (2007)
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Safety Benefit of Raised Medians and Pedestrian Refuge Areas, FHWA-SA-10-020, (2010) This document is an excellent summary of the safety benefits of medians for pedestrians, pedestrian access to transit stops, pedestrian crossing maneuvers, as well as benefits of medians in general. It includes several references that will be useful as well. It is of significant value to the AMM2 chapters and sections on impacts of access management techniques and pedestrians. Key findings are reproduced below.
Harmelink, M. D. Volume Warrants for Left-Turn Storage Lanes at Unsignalized Grade Intersections, Highway Research Record, No. 211, Highway Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. (1967), pp. 1-18.
Fitzpatrick, K. and T. Wolff, Left-turn Lane Installation Guidelines, Proceedings of the 2nd Urban Street Symposium, Transportation Research Board, Anaheim, California (2003)
The objective of this synthesis was to summarize the key findings of various geometric design research efforts published in the 1990s. In the decade following the publication of the 1990 edition of AASHTOs A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets (also known as the Green Book), the research community conducted a large amount of research with potentially significant implications on safety and operations. The primary goal of this synthesis was to capture and distribute that information for consideration in the development of the 2004 edition of the Green Book.