Texas Transportation Institute. TCRP Report 19: Guidelines for the Location and Design of Bus Stops. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., (1996)
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Hunter, W., J. Stutts, W. Pein, and C. Cox. Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Types of the Early 1990s, FHWA-RD-95-163, (June 1996)
Florida Department of Transportation. Access Transit: Design Guidelines for Florida Bus Passenger Facilities, Florida State University, (2004)
Seattle Transit Master Plan: Briefing Book, prepared by Nelson\Nygaard Assoc for the Seattle Department of Transportation, Washington (2011)
This guide includes information relative to the location, design and spacing of transit stops for various forms of transit service. For example:
Gans, A., J. Shen, and A. Rodriguez, Update of Florida Crash Reduction Factors and Countermeasures to Improve the Development of District Safety Improvement Projects, prepared for the Florida Department of Transportation, (April 2005)
This report includes numerous citations of operational and geometric modifications impact crash types. Some of which are access management related.
Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. (2011). Seattle Transit Master Plan Briefing Book. Seattle: Seattle Department of Transportation.
Lutin, J. M., Proposal for Incorporating Public Transit Provisions into a State Highway Access Management Code, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2171 , Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., (2010) pp. 52-56.
Levinson, H. , S. Zimmerman, J. Clinger, J. Gast, S. Rutherford, and E. Braun, TCRP Report 90 Bus Rapid Transit Volume 2: Implementation Guidelines. Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. (2003)
Beimborn E., H. Rabinowitz, P. Gugliotta, C. Mrotek, and S. Yan. Guidelines for Transit-Sensitive Suburban Land Use Design, U.S. Department of Transportation, DOT-T-91-13 (1991)
Adirondack/Glen Falls Transportation Council, Access Management Guide, December 15, 2007
The guide includes a section entitled Access Management & Transit, Bicyclists and Pedestrians. An extract is included below.
Turner, D. Development of Access Management Criteria, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., University of Alabama (in progress 2011)
Ensdorff, R. and A. Iverson, Development of a Statewide Access Management Program in Arizona, ITE 2007 Technical Conference and Exhibit, Managing Congestion--Can We Do Better? (2007)
Gattis, J.L., Assessing the Need for an Access Management Program, Arkansas State Highway & Transportation Dept., Little Rock, Arkansas (2005)
Doyle, T. Michigan DOTs Access Management Corridor Study and Plan Development Process, Proceedings of the 9th National Access Management Conference, Natchez, MS (2010)
Eisele, W., W. Frawley and T. Doyle, Evaluating the Michigan Access Management Program: Findings and Lessons Learned, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No 2223, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. (2011)
Plazak, D., N. Beeman, and M. Finley, Missouri: A Comprehensive Process for Developing a Statewide Access Management Program, Mid Continent Transportation Symposium Proceedings, Iowa State University, (2000) [Online] Available http://www.ctre.iastate.edu/pubs/midcon/FRONT.PDF
NCDOT School Impact Calculator http://www.ncdot.org/doh/preconstruct/traffic/congestion/CM/MSTA/schools.html
NCDOT developed a school impact calculator to help new schools and their consultants determine traffic impacts and how to handle potential traffic on site. The Department also provides technical assistance to schools to ensure appropriate access and circulation design for autos, bicycles and pedestrians.
NCDOT Comprehensive Transportation Plan Study [Online] http://www.ncdot.org/doh/preconstruct/tpb/planning/study.html NCDOT works with local governments to develop Comprehensive Transportation Plans (CTP that tie land use with transportation planning and seek to identify the type of access control for each facility in the long term.
Strategic Highway Corridors Concept Development Report, October 2005, http://www.ncdot.org/doh/preconstruct/tpb/SHC/concept/ . (presented by D. Wasserman at the 7th National Access Management Conference (2006). The Strategic Highway Corridors concept is an initiative to protect the mobility function of critical highway facilitie
Huntington Traffic Solutions. Access Management Stakeholder Report: Responding to Senate Bill 1024, Oregon Department of Transportation, Salem, Oregon (2011).
Frank Broen serves on three TRB national committees to communicate critical transportation needs that enable our multimodal transportation system provide the mobility to live in safe, productive, sustainable and attractive communities. He has worked with FDOT for over 20 years to communicate transportation planning issues, creating innovative products that help both experienced professionals and interested newcomers understand and apply transportation planning concepts.
The use of raised medians in urban areas has increased in recent years. Raised medians restrict access to businesses along a corridor by limiting turning movements to select mid-block locations. Therefore, a very common remark at public hearings related to the construction of raised medians is that there will be detrimental economic impacts on adjacent businesses. However, the restricted access allows more efficient signalization and traffic flow along the corridor, potentially providing more customers for the businesses.
The Missouri Department of Transportation (MODOT) is responsible
for one of the largest state-jurisdiction road systems in the United
States. Missouri has recently decided to embark on an access
management program and has focused on utilizing access management
mainly to meet safety, traffic operations, and economic development
goals. The Missouri Access Management program development process
involves a number of key steps. These include:
This report represents Kentuckys continued efforts to institute a state-wide access management policy, as set forth in the 2004-2008 Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC) Joint Strategic Plan. The suggestions made herein build upon the initial recommendations laid out in Access Management for Kentucky (which had also included an access management implementation plan).
This paper provides an overview of current access management programs in various states, and is one of few uncovered that focus on lessons learned during the development and implementation of the programs. Although few specific details are provided, it does include general suggestions that may be useful for the chapter on state program development. Examples of the lessons learned include hiring a large enough staff dedicated to the program, creating a separate bureau/ department/division for access management, and including a process to handle waivers.
Indiana Access Management Study, prepared by Urbitrans, Inc. for the Indiana Department of Transportation (2006) http://www.in.gov/indot/2512.htm
Eisele, W. and W. Frawley, Michigan Access Management Program Evaluation, prepared for the Michigan Department of Transportation, Texas Transportation Institute (2010) http://michigan.michigan.gov/mdot/0,1607,7-151-9621_11041_29705---,00.html;
Stover, V.G. Signal Spacing, Technical Memorandum, Center for Urban Transportation Research, (October 2007), unpublished. Available at http://www.cutr.usf.edu/programs/pcm/pub.shtml
This technical memorandum addresses the rationale for spacing of intersections that are signalized and those that might be considered for signalization at some time in the future. It includes draft prototype regulations.
Kaseko, M. and T. Mauga, Evaluating the Impact of Spacing of Median Openings on Traffic Safety of Urban Arterials, 90th Annual Transportation Research Board Meeting, Washington, D.C. (2011)
Dixon, K. and J. Gattis, Influence of Road Cross Section on Access Spacing, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., Oregon Transportation Research and Education Consortium (in progress)
Schultz, G., K. Braley, and T. Boschert. Correlating Access Management to Crash Rate, Severity, and Collision Type, Proceedings of the 87th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, (2008)
Schultz, G., K. Braley, and T. Boschert, Relationship between Access Management and Other Physical Roadway Characteristics and Safety, Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 136, Issue 2 (2010)
Pirinccioglu, F., J. Lu, P. Liu and G. Sokolow, Right Turn from Driveways Followed by U-Turn on Four-Lane Arterials: Is It Safer Than Direct Left Turn? Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1953, Washington, D.C. (2006)
Petritsch, T., S. Challa, H. Huang and R. Mussa, Evaluation of Geometric and Operational Characteristics Affecting the Safety of Six-Lane Divided Roadways, Sprinkle Consulting, Incorporated, Florida Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration (2007)
Lu, J. and S. Zhu, Development of Models to Predict Conflict Rates at Unsignalized Intersections, Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of Chinese Transportation Professionals (2010)
Traffic conflict points at intersections are the points at which traffic movements intersect (including crossing, merge, and diverge). Numbers and distribution of conflict points have been used to evaluate intersection access management designs and safety performance. Traditionally, determination of numbers of conflict points for different traffic movements has been based on manual methods, which causes the difficulty for computerized procedures to evaluate safety performance of different access management designs.
Liu, P., J. Lu and H. Chen, Safety effects of the separation distances between driveway exits and downstream U-turn locations, Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 40, Issue 2 (2008)
Highway Safety Manual, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C. (2010).
Rawlings, J. and J. Gattis, Detailed Study of Driveway Collision Patterns in an Urban Area, Transportation Research Board 87th Annual Meeting (2008)
Gans, A., J. Shen, and A. Rodriguez, Update of Florida Crash Reduction Factors and Countermeasures to Improve the Development of District Safety Improvement Projects, prepared for the Florida Department of Transportation, (2005)
Eisele, W. and C. Toycen, Evaluating the Relative Safety of Access Management Treatments in Micro-Simulation, 10th National Conference on Transportation Planning for Small and Medium-Sized Communities (2006)
VHB. Safety Evaluation of Access Management Policies and Techniques, Federal Highway Administration (contract in progress).
The objectives of this ongoing research are to:
1. Develop evaluation models to assess the safety impact of access management policies and treatments relevant to urban, urbanizing, and suburban arterials.
2. Propose an access management evaluation framework that can be adopted by state and local agencies to evaluate compliance of access management policies, and the impacts of viable access treatment techniques.
Schultz , G., J. Lewis, and T. Boschert, Safety Impacts of Access Management Techniques in Utah, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1994, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., (2007, pp. 35-42). [Schultz, G. and J. Lewis, Assessing the Safety Benefits of Access Management Techniques, Brigham Young University, Utah Department of Transportation (2006)]
Potts, I. B., D. W. Harwood, D. J. Torbic, K. R. Richard, J. S. Gluck, H. S. Levinson, P. M. Garvey, R. S. Ghebrial, NCHRP Report 524: Safety of U-Turns at Unsignalized Median Openings, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. (2004)
Potts, I., Harwood, D., and Richard, K. Relationship of Lane Width to Safety for Urban and Suburban Arterials, Presented at the 86th Annual Transportation Research Board meeting, Washington, D.C. (2007).
Mauga, T. and M. Kaseko, Modeling and Evaluating Safety Impacts of Access Management Features in Las Vegas, Nevada, Valley, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2171, Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C. (2010) pp. 57-65